Visit San Antonio Urban Living! Most vibrant neighborhoods transforming SA urban core; diversity and tech jobs
Tech & Online
Children At Work: Looking at Child Labor in the Victorian Age
Today, it isn't that uncommon for some children and teenagers to work. They may earn extra money by baby-sitting, doing yard work, or maybe even walking dogs. Others, once they go on to high school, may go to work in their local grocery store, malls, or food chains. However, in the Victorian Age, it wouldn't seem at all strange to see children as young as five or six, go to work full-time (sometimes sixteen hours a day!) in often dangerous conditions.
As you read, ask yourself questions. Why do you think children so young were working? What type of jobs do you do for extra money? What types of jobs did the Victorian Age children have to do? What would you do to help stop child labor? How do you think your life would be different if instead of getting an education, you had to go to work in a paper mill, or on an assembly line?
Why Did it Happen?
During the first United States Census it was reported that the number of children working in 1870, equalled nearly 750,000. This only included children under the age of fifteen, and didn't count those children who were working on their family farms, or in the family's business. The number of children working continued to increase as new technology and the Industry grew. What were some of the things that caused families to send their children to work? What about the employers that hired them?
One mother in the Victorian Age, Mrs. Smith, was quoted as saying:
"I have three children working in Wilson's mill; one 11, one 13, and the other 14. They work regular hours there. We don't complain. If they go to drop the hours, I don't know what poor people will do. We have hard work to live as it is?..My Husband is one of the same mind about it?last summer my husband was 6 weeks ill; we pledged almost all our things to live; the things are not all out of pawn yet? We complain of nothing but short wages?My children have been in the mill three years. I have no complaint to make of their being beaten?I would rather they were beaten than fined."
Another roadblock to change was that most people thought that by letting children have jobs, it would serve to help the poor families to make more money.
There were many ways that children entered the workforce. Orphaned children were often sent to a distant mill or factory owner to be fed and cared for while working to earn their keep. Others were indentured, or sold to a business owner by their parents for a certain number of years. Other, more fortunate working children lived with their families while working full-time.
While some factory owners and leaders of the industries spoke out against putting children to work so young, others hired children because they didn't have to be paid as much as adults did. Children were also hired for factory and mill jobs because many of the machines that they used were very small. Children were seen as the ideal candidates to work the machines, and to fix them when they were broken.
It's also important to remember that children were raised and treated differently in the Victorian Age. There were some employers who didn't think that there was anything wrong with hiring young children to work. They believed that by hiring these children, the children would eventually grow-up as responsible, hard workers.
However, as you will see in the next section, many of the jobs that children were hired for were often very hard, at times even dangerous.
Working for a Living
When teenagers go to work today, they can choose from many types of work. They can be cashiers, fry cooks, baby-sitters, front desk clerks, stockers or create their own lawn service. Children of the Victorian area didn't have these options.
So, what did these kids do for a living?
The most fortunate working children were hired on as apprentices for the major trades of the era. Some of these trades would include:
While the children were still required to work, and sometimes required to work long hours, they were at least lucky enough to be learning a profitable trade, which offered hope to them for their future.
Younger children might have started out working as street sweepers, "scavengers" or by selling newspapers. Scavengers were children who searched through trash, rubbish and refuse for items they could sell to junk stores, or even to their neighbors. Some of these items might have included pieces of rope, or metal scraps.
Still other children were put to work in more dangerous conditions.
These are only a few examples of the hard work children would face, sometimes working up to ninety hours a week!!
Sometimes the children who went to work and were often away from adult supervision would fall into criminal activity. They would wind up involved in things like gambling, stealing, and sometimes even prostitution.
Making a Difference!!
Many people worked very lard and hard to help protect children from being taken advantage of by the industries. Some key people who fought to control child labor were:
Charles Loring Brace - created the Children's Aid Society
Lewis Wikes Hine - photographer who exposed the child labor problem to the public at large
President Woodrow Wilson - created the Keating-Owen Act (see below)
Lord Ashley - created the Children's Employment Commission in 1842
Charles Dickens - wrote and spoke out against child labor. For more information, read Oliver Twist
Karl Marx - helped incite public opinion
Michael Sadler - worked on the "Ten-Hour Movement"
Organizations that were involved in gathering support from individuals and law makers to control child labor include:
"Short Time Committees"
The Children's Aid Society
The National Child Labor Committee
Progress was sometimes slow, but always encouraging. Several Factory Acts (1819-1878) were created in England, which increased the minimum age of children who were able to work. Along with the Factory Acts, there was the "Ten-Hour Movement" which limited shifts to ten hours, with a weekly limit of fifty-eight hours. Other laws in England that influenced the change of child labor laws included Lord Ashley's Children's Employment Commission (1842), which was followed by the Coal Mines Act in 1843. This Act stopped the Coal Mines from hiring women, or boys under the age of ten.
In America, activists joined together in groups and coalitions to work for labor law and reform, or change. They received a small victory in 1916, when President Woodrow Wilson created the Keating-Owen Act, which banned the interstate (between two or more states) sale of any items produced by child labor. However, this Act was later found to be unconstitutional. The real victory came in the year 1938, with the Fair Labor Standards Act. This Act created a national minimum wage and set the national working age to sixteen (eighteen if the job was dangerous). Children aged 14 and 15 were allowed to work under certain conditions and fields of work, but only after school hours.
Because of the efforts of the Victorian people and the new laws it created for the children of England and America, child labor isn't as large of a problem?.for us. But child labor hasn't disappeared! According to some recent surveys and studies done by the International Labor Office, it was estimated that there are about 250,000,000 kids between five and fourteen working. Of these children, 120,000,000 are working full-time, often in dangerous conditions. Take some time to think of ways that you can help with the modern day global child labor reform!!
Jennifer Gibbs is a global freelance writer who lives in South Georgia with her husband and son. If you'd like to learn how she can provide your website or publication with unique, useful and energetic copy, visit http://www.jennifergibbs.com.
An Alternative to Hiring Employees
Current trends in business are conspiring to create a revolution in the way that small and medium sized companies do business. These forces have created an environment in which growing companies can make maximum use of their labor dollars, while accessing a talent base previously unreachable due to the costs involved with hiring top talent.
How to Think Like a Headhunter to Find Your Dream Job!
In this ever changing world, we need to think out of the box to get ahead. This true for anything you do in life. If you want to succeed you will need to be creative.
7 Tips to Deal With a Bad Performance Review
Q. "I wasn't happy with my last performance review. Should I dispute the
review? Write a letter for my file? Talk to a lawyer? Or just let it go?"
Im just me - An Overview of an Web er.. Designer, Developer, Consultant and Friend
I am going to give you a breakdown of my ... er ... work ... playtime .... income ....
Why Do You Want This Job?
Why Do You Want This Job? Is it because any job will do, or is it because this is the job of your dreams? What do you do ? you send your winning resume, you carefully dress for the interview, you prepare to answer all of the questions about why you are the best candidate for the job. All of the literature tells you to do this. But is this the job for you? Most interview articles don't talk about when to walk away and not accept the job.
Career Advice: Are Resumes Obsolete As A Primary Job Search Tool?
In a day of background checks, pre-employment drug screening and multiple interviews, where do resumes fit in? According to many successful job applicants, not very well. An ever-increasing number of new hires say that resumes were not crucial in landing them the job. Instead, they simply played a part in sealing the deal. If that's true, it means that mailing out resumes and waiting for the phone to ring is the last thing any recent grad or serious job seeker will want to do.
Mastering the Job Interview - 5 Tips to Make Yourself Irresistible to the Interviewer
So you've figured out, more or less what you want to do and where the opportunities are. Now; you have been called for an interview. Here are five steps for interview success for students and graduates:
Surviving in Corporate Amercia: Part 1 - Email
There is a saying that goes, "The best offense is a great defense". Nowhere is that applied better in the corporate world than in the intelligent use of email. In this age of technology, E-mail is a multi-purpose tool that can be adapted into each user's organizational patterns. Firstly, we will get the basic do's and don'ts out of the way.
Any Job is an Honorable Job
Seeing your job as an honorable job, adds more meaning and peace to your life. Also, seeing the honor in what you do now, creates an ideal foundation upon which a career change can be built.
Could You Write Performance Reviews For Money?
Writing performance reviews can be an excellent way to earn a living. Who wouldn't want to go from place to place watching actors, singers, and chefs perform at their best (and maybe their worst)? Getting paid to do something like this just seems like fun, doesn't it? But, in reality, these jobs are not easy to come by nor are they easy to do. A writer will need to have many qualifications and have to write very well in order to establish themselves as worthy candidates of this type of work. Writing reviews is a little more complicated than just telling what you thought of the show.
Great Interview Skills
Going for a job interview can be a harrowing experience. The reasons are varied: A job applicant may not have the necessary relevant working experience or may be worried about the inability to answer difficult questions. Even the pressure of needing a job to pay for the living expenses can cause a job applicant to "freeze" or go numb with anxiety during the interview.
Job Interviews: How to Answer the How Do You Handle Stressful Situations? Question
When answering the "How do you handle stressful situations?" question during an interview, the best strategy is to give some examples of stressful situations you've dealt successfully with in the past.
Job Interviews -- What Your Pre-Interview Research Should Cover
When you go in for a job interview, you're not just a candidate seeking a job. You're a potential problem solver and contributor. To play that role effectively, you must be armed with the right kind of information. That's what pre-interview research is all about.
Interview Questions: How To Stump The Interviewer
In the limited time an interviewer has with you, their mission is to know you and assess your worth, especially in relationship to the other candidates interviewed. Asking you questions is the way they accomplish that mission.
Conflicts With Your Boss Are Inevitable, But Can Be Healthy
If you are a pro-active, get-things-done type, sooner or later you will
come in conflict with your boss. The same sort of assertiveness and
confidence that leads you to have a mind of your own has helped him to
earn his position.
2 Job-Search Success Stories
Here are two success stories from my readers who found great new jobs last week. As you read each story, ask yourself, "How could I apply this to my job hunt?"
Auto-Disqualification - When Your Resume Never Reaches the Decision Maker
How would you know if your resume did or didn't reach the appropriate decision maker? You can truly never know for certain. However, there are steps you can take to ensure that your resume does not get "auto-disqualified", or provide obvious reasons not to be hired.
Online Business: The Underground Railroad for Corporate Escapees
Millions of people everyday spend eight hours or more in a small padded cubicle. The curious thing about it is they choose to do that. They willingly sacrifice a quality of life because they believe it is the only way to support their families. That may have been true 10 years ago but it isn't any longer.
Resume Writing Service Website
Promote Your Resume Business Website!
Out Recruit The Competition
We hear from our clients that they "hope the candidate takes the job." Hiring a candidate shouldn't be a guessing game. After you interview a candidate thoroughly, and spend a great deal of time and money getting them through the process, you should not have to worry about "landing them."